On the development of CNC machine tools in China

2022-08-14
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Talking about the development of CNC machine tools in China

I used to be an engineer in China's machine tool industry. After graduating from University, I have been concentrating on this industry for many years, but my unit defaulted on wages, which made me live in debt. (previously, the unit was very rich, but did not engage in technological transformation, but took the money earned by the machine tools to build a cement plant, and finally lost my money.) later, due to the problem of livelihood, I stopped my major and went to business. Now I'd like to share with you something I know about CNC machine tools

the level of machine tools mainly depends on metal cutting machine tools. The technology and complexity of other machine tools are not high. That is, the popular electric machining machine tools in recent years are only the change of methods, without any complexity and scientific and technological content

our CNC grinding machines are of good quality and are exported in large quantities every year. Because it is simple, it is basically labor-intensive

metal processing is mainly to remove materials and get the desired metal shape. Remove materials, mainly turning and milling. Lathes are developed into CNC lathes, and milling machines are developed into machining centers. High precision multi axis machine tools can make complex parts in place in accuracy and shape at one time. For example, a complex part on your plane was used by many kinds of workers: lathe workers, milling workers, grinder workers, line drawing workers, heat treatment workers for several months, including scrapped ones. The latest composite CNC machine tools can be completely dried in a few days or even hours, and the accuracy is higher than what you designed. High accuracy of parts means long service life and good reliability

from ordinary to CNC, one person tops the original ten. In terms of accuracy, it's impossible to say. In terms of adaptability, the parts have changed, just change the program. The human factor is also reduced to a minimum. In the past, in the factory, who would drive the turbine and worm when he wanted it? Every 10 years and 8 years can't do it. If anyone mastered it, it would be very awesome. Now with numerical control equipment, as long as you can program and input the parameters, ha ha, simple, just graduated technical school students will. And the quality of batch products is also guaranteed

since the United States created a numerical control lathe in the world in the late 1950s, the machine tool manufacturing industry has entered the numerical control era. In the 1960s, China developed the first generation of numerical control machine tools, but we all know what era China entered later. When we look at the world's CNC machine tool level in the 1980s, the gap is 20 years. In fact, there is still hope to catch up, but state-owned factories do not want to make progress. In the 1990s, we look at the world level again, and there is a gap of 30 years. In the era of seclusion, we followed the Soviet way. What is the Soviet way? For example, to produce a shaft, the Soviet way is to build a special production line and use multiple special machine tools. The advantage is that it is easy to batch up, but once the parameters of the shaft change, the line will be scrapped and the production personnel will have nothing to do. In the 1960s and 1980s, the production of a product in state-owned factories remained unchanged for decades. After the 1980s, when the commodity economy was established, these factories could not adapt to the market quickly, so it was difficult to operate. In the 1990s, a large number of bankruptcies and a large number of workers were laid off. Hehe, this is how layoffs come

modern production also has mass production, but it is mainly a single piece of small batch. No matter what kind, as long as your equipment is CNC, it will adapt quickly. The way of professional machine tools has come to an end. Westerners are very smart, and the way they go is different from that of the Soviets. In the "Toshiba" incident of that year, Toshiba, Japan, sold several five axis CNC milling machines to the Soviet Union, so that the Soviet Union's manufacturing of submarine propellers has reached a higher level, so that the U.S. sonar can't hear the sound of submarines, so the United States will punish Toshiba in the process of transportation. It can also be seen that the machine tool manufacturing industry in the Soviet Union is also backward, not to mention us

although the United States has developed the world's first CNC machine tool, the development of CNC machine tools still depends on Germany. Germany was originally the first in the world in terms of machinery. Numerical control machine tools are nothing more than electromechanical integration. Germany has no problem in terms of machinery, and the rest is in terms of electronic systems. Germany's electronic system industry is already strong, so in the 1960s and 1970s, Germany won the bull's ear in the machine tool industry

but the strength of the Japanese is imitation. Since the 1970s, Japan has introduced a large number of technologies from Germany, and after digestion, a large number of imitation. Through efforts, Japan has surpassed Germany since the 1990s and become the world's largest manufacturer of numerical control machine tools, and it is still. In terms of machine tool manufacturing, some of them are also ahead of the world. For example, in terms of machine tool compounding (one machine with multiple functions), they are the first in the world. The core of CNC machine tools lies in the CNC system. At present, Japan ranks first in the world in terms of system, mainly its FANUC company. The first generation system uses stepping motor, and we can also make it now. The second generation uses AC servo motor. The core of the current CNC system is the AC servo motor and the logic control software in the system. At present, no one in our country can manufacture the AC servo motor, which is an optical, mechanical and electronic complex. The logic control software is to control the movement of each axis of the machine tool, and these axes are driven by servo motors. General systems can control 3 axes at the same time, advanced systems can control 5 axes, and there is no problem with more than 5 axes. Our country also has a 5-axis system, but the "show" has many components and has not been applied. Five axis and more machine tools used in our factory are 100% imported

machine tool is a symbol of a country's manufacturing level, and its core is the numerical control system. At present, let's not say that the system is a slightly better quality CNC machine tool made in China. The high-precision ball screws and bearings used are imported, mainly from Japan. Our self-produced ball screws and bearings have problems in accuracy and life. At present, all major domestic machine tool plants purchase 100% of the CNC system, and all manufacturers generally buy FANUC "What we need to do is to match the market demand. Mitsubishi's system accounts for more than 80%, and there are also German Siemens' systems, but it is relatively small. Why do German Siemens systems use less? In the early days, the German system is not suitable for our electricity, and our electrical stability is not enough. Ximen subsystem fixture and its test fixture do not have to use hydraulic electronic servo module, which is easy to burn out. Japan is different, and their system will not burn out. Recently The Siemens system has been improved a lot, but the price is still slightly higher. Germans don't pay much attention to China, so their system has been sinicized only recently. Unlike Japan, there has been a sinicized version for a long time

as far as domestic advanced CNC machine tools are concerned, the main part of their profits is taken away by foreigners, and we just earn a lot of hard money

why didn't the United States become a major manufacturer of CNC machine tools? This is related to the people who made industrial policies at that time. In addition, the labor force in the United States was expensive at that time, so it was more cost-effective to buy than to manufacture. Machine tools belong to the industry with large investment, slow effectiveness and low rate of return, and need technology accumulation. Not quite in tune with the situation in the United States. But later, Americans found that machine tools belong to strategic materials. Without them, there are problems in the manufacture of your aircraft, artillery, tanks and warships, so they reformulated policies, supported some machine tool factories, and stipulated that some units can only buy domestic equipment, even if they are expensive, which has retained some NC machine tool industries for the United States. American machine tools are not competitive in the world

European machine tools are also very good in Switzerland except Germany. To say ultra-high precision machine tools, Swiss machine tools are quite good, but the price is also sky high. Ordinary users can't afford it. Italy, Britain and France are second-class, and we seldom buy their machine tools. Hehe, Spain lent us a loan to buy their machine tools. It is said that in this way, few people buy it, and they always have to repay the money they borrow

in Asia, except Japan, the manufacturing capacity of NC machine tools in South Korea and Taiwan is also stronger than ours, but the level is similar. They also introduced Japanese technology in the 1990s. South Korea should be better. It has its own manufactured and commercialized numerical control system, but the machine tools imported into China have also been replaced by the Japanese system at our request. We can't trust their system. There are two main CNC machine tools in Korea: Daewoo and Hyundai. Daewoo currently has a joint venture in China. Taiwan machine tools are roughly the same as ours. They make their own mechanical parts and purchase Japanese systems. However, their machine tools are of poor quality and short service life, which has annoyed some mainland customers. At present, the crooked machine tools have a bad impact on the mainland. In fact, they are a little better than our domestic ones. But we can tolerate our own shortcomings. Curved machine tools are bought in US dollars, which are also considered "imported". If they are not used well, the fire will be big. The major machine tool factories in Taiwan have planned to move their factories to the mainland. As far as I know, most of them are in Shanghai

in the domestic competition, these factories are also under the banner of "domestic". Haha, they are the first to accept unification.

recently, with China's economic development, it has also attracted the attention of some major machine tool manufacturers in the world. In 2000, Japan's largest machine tool manufacturer "Mazak" set up a joint venture factory of CNC machine tools in Yinchuan, China. It is said that the manufacturing level is quite high, known as the "intelligent and networked" factory, Keep pace with the world. This year, Okuma company, another large machine tool factory in Japan, set up a holding company with an annual output of 1000 CNC machine tools in Beijing, and a well-known German enterprise also set up a factory in Shanghai

now, the state has also formulated some policies to encourage everyone to use domestic CNC machine tools, and manufacturers are also trying to catch up. But until now, I haven't heard of anyone who has manufactured the AC servo motor and the corresponding system. The revolution has not yet succeeded, and comrades still need to work hard

some friends will ask, domestic machine tools are so poor, then our national defense industry must be bad, which is only partly right. Our national defense department is quite sober. Every year, a large number of high-precision CNC machine tools are imported, some of which are machine tools that are restricted from exporting to socialist countries. It is said that they are called "non proliferation agreement". Japan and the United States implement this agreement better, but European countries basically do not implement it. As long as you have money, you can sell it to you. We have recently brought in many advanced machine tools from the United States and Japan. Hehe, capitalism is born to pursue profits

a few days ago, I chatted with a former colleague. He said that at present, the largest number of domestic machine tools are military enterprises. In a purchase plan, 80% of them are dream aircraft, arousing more latent use of imports. He was very angry, but he couldn't help it. Domestic machine tools can't meet the needs. This trend will not change in the next five years. However, in terms of current domestic needs, it is also very good to order some low-end products as long as they can be brought. Alas, there is no way. Our CNC machine tools can only meet the "low-grade" requirements at present

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